Doubtfully Thomas

I have heard this story so much I feel I have been raped “from the window to the wall” mentally. What surprised me recently was that I found this story was not known to 31/33 of the earliest Christian writers. Here is a list of who knew it and who didn’t.

  1. Irenaeus of Lyon never heard of the doubting Thomas incident and only mentions Thomas once in Against Heresies 1.18.3 where he speaks of Thomas being absent from the resurrection appearance of Jesus. Interestingly this is the original episode in John. Thomas is simply absent.
  2. Hippolytus of Rome in his Philosophumena 5.2 mentions Hippocrates using a Gospel of Thomas which he quotes in a dishonest way. No doubting Thomas episode here. Keep in mind this is the only mention of Thomas by Hippolytus in all his extant works!
  3. Clement of Alexandria mentions Thomas in his Stromata 4.9, speaking very highly of him and never mentioning the doubting Thomas episode.
  4. Tertullian ‘A treatise on the soul’ 17 and 50 seem to be the earliest mention of doubting Thomas and by a heretic whose writings were condemned by Pope Gelasius who was seen as more orthodox than orthodox. ‘Against Praxeas’ 24-25 call Thomas ‘incredulous’ as well.
  5. Origen ‘Contra Celsus’ 2.61-2.62 and his ‘Commentary on John’ 10.27 both mention the doubting Thomas episode, possibly inspired by Tertullian, although doubtfully.
  6. Pseudo-Ignatius of Antioch Long recension of Smyrnaeans 3 mentions it
  7. Papias fragment via Eusebius’ CH mentions Thomas but not as doubting.
  8. 3Corinthians has the episode included and may be the actual source for the information.
  9. Jerome and Eusebius make use of the episode
  10. Clement of Rome, Polycarp, Ignatius, Barnabas, Hermas, Didache, Aristides, Tatian, Minucius Felix, Athenagoras, Theophilus of Antioch, Justin Martyr, Quadratus, Aristo, Claudius Apollinaris, Melito, Hegesippus, Dionysus of Corinth, Rhodon, Theophilus of Caesarea, Bardesanes, Maximus, Polycrates, Victor, Pantaenus, Serapion, Apollonius, and Caius never mention it!

The fact remains then, that not one church father before Tertullian mentions the incident. Tertullian is writing as a Montanist when he does mention it. This makes it a post-207AD writing. Origen was teaching at the catechetical school of Alexandria in 203 making it very likely that Tertullian was a teacher there or even his student! Not long after 270AD Christians in Syria were writing about the letter of 3Corinthians. It seems to me that due to the fact that Mani and Hippocrates and other heretics used the Gospel of Thomas, Tertullian and Origen had to rail against it to discredit it. To achieve this, they first had to edit their gospels to conform to a model of belief that ostracizes Thomas as a doubter.

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Rethinking Codex 6

Codex 6 of the Nag Hammadi Library that is. This codex contains eight writings: A poem, a few Gnostic texts, a Gnosticized fragment of Plato’s Republic which reads rather more like Catholic, and three ‘Hermetic’ writings inspired by Hermeticism likely but not part of the famous Corpus Hermetica. It is also a shame these texts were not Hermetically sealed by alchemists, another clue that they aren’t all that Gnostic in truth but rather a compilation book of the dead for a dying monk obsessed with gathering ascension myths on the soul of various philosophical schools.

Keep in mind in the ancient world Christianity was never recognized as a religion but merely as a philosophy which meant it was not ancient. Platonism was just another philosophy but one with more antiquity than Christianity. Hermeticism was the same. The early Gnostics were definitely meeting the savior at Aeslepions outside the walls of Jerusalem and in the cities of Anatolia.

Codex 6 contains the ‘Concept of Our Great Power’ as it’s fourth work. This writing has one extremely bizarre passage (keep in mind the bizarre ordering of the ‘Gospel of Thomas’ and other writings, as these were being copied very fast and very selectively. Not one is an original), it reads, “Yet you are sleeping, dreaming dreams. Wake up and return, taste and eat the true food! Hand out the Word (Logos) and the water of life! (Zoe) Cease from the evil lusts and desires (the teachings of) the Anomeans, evil heresies that have no basis.”

So what the heck is an Anomean right?

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Gnostics did not hate the flesh, but the Catholics and Plotinus did.

Even Irenaeus in his tirade against Gnostics never once comes out and says, “Hey, these Gnostic pests hate the flesh”. His problem with them was not that they despised or hated the flesh but that they denied it’s salvation. To support the salvation of the flesh is not to love the flesh anymore than to deny the salvation of the flesh is the hate it. The truth is, modern scholars are lazy sometimes, so they stick with this tag line: “Gnostics hated the flesh”, so they can sell really poorly written books their peers wouldn’t even dare read. This is because they have run out of good material most likely.

The early Gnostics were said to despise (not care for) the flesh. This means the last priority of theirs was to keep their body in perfect shape. This is very much opposed to Greco-Roman athletic culture in which the body was obsessed over. In fact, in Paul, we find both stances. It is possible that when referring to the body and conditioning it, he is referring to the church, or one’s not authentically Paul and the other is. I have read convincing arguments for both sides and even thought of my own.

The Stoics taught to despise the flesh as can be found in the Encheiridion of Epictetus transmitted by his pupil. There are several other platitudes that get thrown around on the internet and in books regarding Gnostic beliefs but the hatred for the flesh is by far and away the most common. It is lauded as fact but it’s merely tons of people copying one or two people who read early sources and had poor reading comprehension.

(Also note that it was not a common thing in antiquity to think someone wrote a work simply because their name was attached to it! It is common practice now to dismiss anything with a name affixed as not being by that author. In fact, this is done with virtually every single religious writing in Christianity and Gnosticism but hardly ever with any other religion or secular writers. There is no real set of pre-requisites or criteria for disproving authorship.)

It is not hard to see that Augustine was the flesh hater who used Plotinus and Pseudo-Dionysus.

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Fatal Knowledge

“To live is to die” -Cliff Burton ‘Metallica’ ‘To live is to die’.

Very much so! To live day to day is to question, ponder, or obsess over mortality and what comes next. The Gnostics were no strangers to afterlife speculation. They were no different than Greek Pagans, Roman Pagans, or Egyptians, or even early Christians. For the Egyptians there were tales of Osiris, Ma’at, and Thoth judging the recently departed in a very Beetlejuise-esque fashion. Repeating 42 negative confessions, weighing a heart on a scale, and fighting a giant serpent, then being purified by flames are all common themes.

Beetlejuice

The Greeks had angry Gods who appeared to be humans like Zeus, Titans locked under the earth, and the dreaded Sirens and Fates. The Fates (or Moirai) were Clotho the spinner, Lachesis the allotter, and Atropos the unturnable. They were governed by necessity. Necessity being this void or kenoma that needed to be fulfilled. Clotho was Nona in Rome, meaning the ‘ninth’ in reference to the ninth month of pregnancy in which a child is born supposedly. Lachesis was Decima or the ‘tenth’ putting much doubt on the names referring to childbirth even though pregnancy is actually around ten months. I think it corresponds more to the number of hells or heavens. Atropos was Morta in Roman, she cut each person’s life thread. The Fates sing with the Sirens of the things were, are, and are to be. Sound like the book of Revelation? One of the archons most well done works!

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Hermaeus Mora is Gnostic

“Hermaeus Mora is the Daedric prince of fate, knowledge, and memory. In his rare dealings with mortals, he often chooses to appear as a grotesque mass of tentacles.” -Skyrim loading screen.

What’s that? Fate, Gnosis, and Mentalism? That is correct. He is the Simon Magus incarnation in the realm of Tamriel, in an alternate world with different physics where they really had magic in the middle ages and they never ended because let’s face it, technology sucks ass compared to magic!

Hermaeus Mora even loves Apocrypha and lives in Oblivion, a place from Greek mythology that influenced Hell in some ways but referred to the world how it really is. The world we cannot see but through a glass dimly. Time and Astrology are associated with him showing an affinity to the concepts of the daimon and fate. He is the lord over forbidden gnosis.

He’s even a vampire with an international taste for every race.

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Who is Sophia?

She’s that temptress, that wild Gnostic vixen, that heavy metal stripper. But she’s so much more…

 

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Asclepius

“And that these things did happen, you can ascertain from the Acts of Pontius Pilate.”

-Justin Martyr First Apology XXXV

It just so happens we can ascertain more than the things Justin mentions. We find this tantalizing piece of evidence in the first chapter, “Pilate saith unto them, ‘This is not to cast out devils by an unclean spirit, but by the god Asclepius.'” The Jews replied that he does his works by Beelzebub. In the fifty-fourth chapter of the First Apology Justin claims that Aesculapius mocks Jesus’ healing of the sick.
 In chapter twenty-one he even mentions that he was struck by lighting and ascended into heaven. He was also the son of Apollo, the Trojan God. Like Jesus, his mother was unfaithful and shunned for it. Zeus killed him for raising Hippolytus from the dead for a monetary bribe, aka simony in a sense.

The College of Aesculapius at Rome was in charge of burials. His son was even named Telesphorus and a prophet named Alexander was a member of his cult in the 2nd century. This is already two names of Popes and an early church father.

This Alexander of Paphlagonia lived between 105 and 170 AD. Glycon was the snake worshiped by this false prophet. It had a lion like head and snake body. Much as the Demiurge. It seems to me this is the Naassene cult.

In John chapter 5, Jesus heals a life long blind man at the pool of Bethesda outside the walls of Jerusalem. There is archaeological evidence that this was an Aesclepion. The phrase hygies genesthai and the word louein are reminiscent of language of the Asclepius cult as is the term soter.

These pools date to the time of Hadrian and have no Jewish markings of older construction projects before that time. Synagogues do not even date any earlier than Hadrian.

 

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Billy boy Donhue

bill-donahue-astrology-bible

  Beware the Gnosticizing antics of this closet homosexual and Christ hater, Bill Donahue. Not only does he describe Gnosticism incorrectly, he even teaches Gnostic doctrines such as a spiritual resurrection and the kingdom inside of you, etc. For proof of his homosexual glee one need only examine the following page which contains thumbnails for his videos. There are pictures of him having very gay body language.

https://www.youtube.com/user/bdona4556/videos

He gets real New Agey when he admits to being a New Ager as well as admitting to loving Astrology which is a Jewish science. Science being the same word as Gnosis mind you.

Here is Bill adamantly raving about how much he despises Christianity, Christians, and their Christ.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_EVT39GZgDE

Here is Bill explaining the spiritual resurrection as your spirit being a photon leaving your flesh.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bKJHZGssey4

Bill asking rhetorical questions about why 10% brain function (a myth not a scientific fact) was changed to the old testament 10% tithe. I hope you know that the answer is it was not and they knew of no 10% brain function because well, the Jews did NOT believe the brain controlled the body.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yoZUd_WmMw0

Bill admitting his God is a prick.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1OUQxSNaRNs

He likes torn curtains which he can peer through and see young boys “drop their pants” and “run” around naked

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G0CP9B31rWI

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The Gnosis of Tamriel

I was asked by Alex Rivera to do an article on Hermaeus Mora being Gnostic- some time ago- and so I decided today that I would do an article on the Gnosis of the world of Tamriel in the Elder Scrolls video game series. Skyrim is the culmination of all the prophecies in the games from Daggerfall to Oblivion. Much like real-life Gnosis, one must experience Skyrim and all the other games and expansions from Daggerfall to Morrowind, to Oblivion, and then Skyrim, to truly appreciate all the little chunks of hidden gnosis ingrained within the world of Tamriel.

Elder Scrolls is up there with Lord of the Rings, Game of Thrones, and Star Wars, and many of the great fairy tales like Snow White and Alice in Wonderland. To miss out on this game is to miss out on some of the finest story telling in our history. It all began in 1992 with the release of Arena. Arena was originally a very boring idea. It was a world in which teams went from city to city competing in Gladiatorial combat until they reached the Imperial city of Cyrodil to win the championship. It had next to no RPG elements. It’s follow up title was Daggerfall which was a full blown RPG with a world twice the size of Great Britain and a population of 750,000. Then came Morrowind in full 3D and it has only improved from there.

Elder scrolls is packed with a rich lore found in conversation with the inhabitants of each land visited and the books found in each game. The very Elder Scrolls themselves are full of forbidden knowledge known to blind their readers and even cause death. They are engraved with ineffable words. Even the Dragons speak in ineffable words and repose in silence amidst the tall mountains.

A key text to the lore of Tamriel is “Before the Ages of Man” by Aicantar of Shimerene which increases your characters mysticism and illusion skills (sounds pretty damn Gnostic to me). This book first appears on the game Oblivion and seems to be by a man who lived in the time of Jagar Tharn during the Daggerfall game. This book begins with myths and legends rather than history. Aicantar calls this period prehistory and divides it into two eras: the Dawn, and the Merethic.

Dawn was before “mortal time” likely meaning before the act of mortals recording their time on earth. When you live for hundreds or thousands of years it’s rather cumbersome to keep track of time isn’t it? This era ended with an Exodus of the gods and magic from the world at the founding of the Adamantine tower which is a place on the Daggerfall game on the continent of High Rock. Notice the Adamantine land theme of Gnosticism here? Or maybe even the Tower of Babel?

The Pocket guide to the Empire 3rd edition discusses the founding of the tower as does Before the Ages of Man. It is where the Aedra met to discuss the creation of Mundus. Then the Elves ruled Tamriel during the Merethic era, and Ysgramor the Nord after them.

The creation stories is as follows:

“The Cosmos formed from the Aurbis [chaos, or totality] by Anu and Padomay. Akatosh (Auriel) formed and time began. The Gods (et’ Ada) formed. Lorkhan convinced– or tricked– the Gods into creating the mortal plane, Nirn. The mortal place was at this point highly magical and dangerous. As the Gods walked, the physical make-up of the mortal plane and even the timeless continuity of existence itself became unstable.”

Notice here that the Cosmos was formed out of chaos which is equated with the totality, everything being blobbed together without definite boundaries. Here the Pleroma is Aurbis that Anu and Padomay manipulated to create the Cosmos. Lorkhan here is kind of like the serpent in Genesis.

Next we are introduced to the Architect (Demiurge?) Magnus who is Magic itself embodied:

“When Magic (Magnus), architect of the plans for the mortal world, decided to terminate the project, the Gods convened at the Adamantine tower [Direnni Tower, the oldest known structure in Tamriel] and decided what to do. Most left when Magic did. Others sacrificed themselves into other forms so that they might stay (the Ehlnofey). Lorkhan was condemned by the Gods to exile in the mortal realms, and his heart was torn out and cast from the Tower. Where it landed, a Volcano formed. With Magidc (in the Mythic sense) gone, the Cosmos stabilized. Elven history, finally linear, began (ME2500).”

Lorkhan is much the Loki character in this story but notice here that like Aristotle’s Demiurge, Magic simply left the Cosmos behind unattended. This world “congealed into reality” as the Pocket Guide to the Empire puts it. The Ehlnofey are aka as the Aldmeri (High elves) of Aldmeris. The Moth priests who watch over the Elder Scrolls have passed down a tale that the land of Aldmeris was never a mortal physical land which is why no one ever found it, but rather that it was a collection of light images left over from the Chaos during the Dawn.

Mundus is the space surrounding Nirn and its moons. The eight planets were made from the body parts of the Gods. The Aedra are the 8 divines all of which are actually mortals. So here we have Aeons, at least a few. Next I will introduce you to Hermaeus Mora. These posts will be fairly short.

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Mainstream Scholarship Mental Gymnastics: Worse than a Fundegelical Apologist cracked out on generic brand Jesus blood.

I tend to reject most mainstream scholarly theories and truisms, whether they be found in ancient patristics, scholasticism, 19th century pre-Nag Hammadi scholarship, fundie scholarship, Catholic scholarship, or the Titans of modern new Testament scholarship such as Baur, Eisenmann, Ehrman, Pagels, etc. I also reject most of the Mythicist scholars. My reasons for doing so vary from camp to camp but the over arching reason is this: truisms. Statements that while they seem to be true are really just inaccurate damaging umbrella statements that have no basis in fact and no ground in reality. They are detrimental and actually tend to retard the mind of those whose ears they rape. I like to avoid truisms like the plague or the inquisition. I will not bother filling your brain with them but rather, I will seek to de-program them from your mind. I will address the most common ones and show you why they are utter rubbish.

The most popular truisms are as follows: Gnostics believed the material world was evil; Gnostics were a suicide cult; Gnostics hated procreation; Gnostics were monastics; Gnostics were libertines; Gnostics were elitists; and the list goes on an on ad infinitum. These statements are the most absurd nonsense. Here is another one: Gnostics eat babies, or there’s this one too: Gnostic Christology is adoptionist.

Another thing I really detest about Scholars is that they will assign a text to a given time period for no good reason! This irks me the most for several reasons, one being that it creates misconceptions that Orthodoxy is most certainly in possession of the oldest texts. Also, they tend to date manuscripts based on paleographic assumptions and tell everyone they carbon-dated them. This does not work on me because I have a little training in Archaeology from a community college. Something most people do not possess. Now depending on what chronological order the New Testament was written in can determine the beliefs of a scholar. It then has a great impact on the public at large if the scholar is popular. If the scholar is wrong, then well a whole lot of people are wrong with them.

BeetlejuiceBart_Ehrman

No, that’s not Beetlejuice, it’s Bart D. Ehrman, a man with no point. A sell-out and Charlatan.

Bart Ehrman is a fantastic example of someone who was once a scholar and over time became a clanging cymbal. Most of his scholarship is really nothing more than beliefs based on how things ought to work. The writers of the New Testament had to have gradually become more anti-Semitic and so the most anti-Semitic material comes last. Yet, then he tells us that 1Thessalonians is the first writing ever penned in the canon! He bases the idea that these were written first on Acts of the Apostles. A book he assumes is old because it has adoptionist tendencies like the epistle to the Hebrews and Matthew. Yet, the most anti-Semitic statement occurs in this letter! It reads as follows, “You suffered from your people the same things those churches suffered from the Jews who killed the Lord Jesus and the prophets and also drove us out. They displease God and are hostile to everyone in their effort to keep us from speaking to the Gentiles so that they may be saved. In this way they always heap up their sins to the limit. The wrath of God has come upon them at last.” (1Thess 2:14b-16) This is a red herring fallacy of Ehrman’s.

The above passage speaks of God sending his wrath upon the Jews which is clearly a reference to the temple destruction in AD70, yet it is purportedly written in the time of Paul as his first letter in the AD50s. How can Ehrman maintain that this is the earliest writing yet the anti-Semitic writings are the latest? Is he claiming we do not have any of the neutral or pro-Semitic writings? Yet it seems he admits we do. Of course, he would probably explain it as being an interpolation yet according to his logic we would have no reason to view it as such. To Ehrman, interpolations are really only plausible if we have manuscript tradition evidence that the verses were excluded. These were never excluded. Tertullian, in his Against Marcion book 5, chapter 15 actually speaks of the Jews slaying their prophets in reference to this same letter. Before him, no one knows of the passage. It could therefore be argued that it was interpolated after AD198-202 or 1Thessalonians was simply forged after Acts of the Apostles was written. Acts being first quoted by Irenaeus and at length for that matter.However, for Ehrman, patristics do not qualify as determinate in establishing interpolation.At least not when they defeat his stance.

That is only the beginning. Next off, Ehrman and many others like him tend to write one sentence paragraphs seemingly with the intention of fending off the literate. For an example, look to ‘Lost Christianities, (Christianities is not a plural for Christianity nor is it a word by the way). One need only read the second paragraph on page one. Shame on you Bart. He follows it up with the most ambiguous question to disgrace the paper of a book, “What could be more diverse than this variegated phenomenon, Christianity in the modern world?” If you cannot spot the ambiguity in this sentence, then you need to stop reading and take a college level English course. It should read, “What could be more diverse in our modern world than this variegated phenomenon called Christianity?” That is certainly his intention but because of the ambiguity you could read it as saying something different and his point falls apart.

ann-coulterAcharyaS

It’s a bird, it’s a plane! No! It’s the Anne Coulter of the New Age: Acharya S.

A new Age could start when she stops talking. She’s about as wrong as Ehrman.

He then tries to convince his readers that most of these belief systems were stamped out so that is why many are not aware of them. That is not the case at all nor is it even remotely true. Most people do not know about them because most people do not give a rats ass. Most Protestant Christians do not care about these forms of belief unless they are Alex Jones types. Most Catholics are aware of them to some degree and either do not care about them because secretly they pray to Jupiter or because they just do not really worry about them because they do not interact with anyone holding to these beliefs. Most Eastern Orthodox know of these and despise them. The majority of the countries in the East are fully aware of them. There are to this day Cathars, Manichaeans, Mandaeans, etc. in several places in the world.

Most anything that Ehrman or Acharya S say really only applies to Western Christianity. Ehrman claims ever so stupidly (and lies) when he says there were groups of Gnostics that believed in two gods, and thirty gods, and 365 gods. This is not true at all. He also cannot provide a citation. These are a few more truisms. Here is another: Gnostics were dualists, or: Gnostics were panentheists. Both are false. The truth is, scholars like the term dualism so it is an elastic term they stretch and manipulate like a seamstress in order to fit the pants around their big fat lies and fat wallets.

Scholars will also suggest that there were Gnostics who believed the world was created by the Demiurge who was blind and ignorant, and that he did it with the intention of imprisoning us in his big cosmic matrix film just for shits and giggles because he is a pompous ass. Perhaps even that he is a dead beat dad or an absentee land lord. While these may represent the passion Gnostics may have had in their resentment against mankinds various concepts of God (conceptions of God), they do not state the facts of their theology.

The Gnostic groups actually did not believe the Demiurge created the world. They believed that Sophia had split in two and gave birth to the Demiurge who was the disorganized matter like a miscarriage more so than an abortion. (Sophia even gave birth without a consort like the Virgin Mary or YHWH did to Adam). If you have ever seen an abortion performed then you can visualize this description. If not, then you might have a hard time. By calling it an abortion, they meant that rather than having a divinely organized form it was formless and void as Genesis calls it. They got the idea from Genesis. The idea that the world was created by angels is from Genesis too. So, Gnostics actually believed that angels created the world on the command of the Demiurge who was the material creation itself. Since he was blind and ignorant, he could not intentionally imprison us. Where Ehrman got these ideas is beyond me. There is no support for these assertions in the Nag Hammadi Corpus nor in the earliest patristic writers.

Ehrman also loves to suggest that anything Gnostic must date to the third century or later. He goes on to suggest that Gnostics believed that the God of the Jews was Satan. The problem is that Jesus believed this too. One need only read the Gospel of John for proof. Paul, who was the first Gnostic according to some of the Gnostics, actually taught that the destroying angel mentioned in Exodus was the God of the Jews and gave the Satanic 1/3 of the law while Moses gave the rest and God gave the decalogue. It was not YHWH but the Existent one who gave the decalogue. The name YHWH never occurs in Gnostic texts because the name YHWH was not even used in regards to God in their time.That is a late development.

Then he says that some Christians believed the spirit left Jesus before his death yet he uses Mark’s gospel as proof. However, Mark depicts the spirit leaving Jesus directly when he breathes his last breath with a clear parallel to Genesis when Adam becomes a living being when God breathes into him. This is an ancient Egyptian belief and was the reason behind the opening of the mouth ceremony. So, this claim as you can see is Purina dog chow. Like many scholars, he too loves to claim some Gnostics believed Jesus never suffered. This is false information based on polemics, the very thing he claims to be against. Yet, he takes the heresiologists words into his veins like heroine while treating the Nag Hammadi texts as if they were not accurate or informative. As if the stance of the enemy was best.

He then likes to make silly statements such as, “There were yet other Christians who said that Jesus never died”. He loves to use words that Gnostics defined differently such as death. For a Gnostic, death meant to be ignorant just like drunk and asleep did. It was not meant to mean dead in the carnal sense, as in the cessation of material biological life. Rather, to be dead to the world was to be alive in the spirit. To be alive biologically could also be to be dead spiritually. I would argue that the majority of Christians and Gnostics believed that Jesus never truly died because he could not be held captive by the grave. Ehrman should just drop this statement altogether. It is counter-intuitive and anti-productive. It may have possibly committed genocide on my grey matter.

He also asks why people held these wild beliefs and wonders if it was because “there was no New Testament”. Yet, he is too stupid to realize that these groups did not have the interpolated texts, while some had entirely different texts. However, there was a New Testament as is obvious from patristics. Only Catholics used this canon! With the exception of 3John, 2Peter, Jude, and James which are doubted as being earlier than AD250.

He even assumes that the four gospels are evidenced by Irenaeus. However, books 3-5 likely date to the time of AD382-385 when Pope Damasus assigned Jerome to correct the texts in order to prove Romes supremacy. The first two books show no evidence of Mark’s gospel. It seems there was a Gospel of Marcion predating Luke which was likely redacted a few times. There was John which went through some redactions. Then there was the Gospel of the Hebrews that became Matthew. Then there were some others like Mary, Judas, Thomas, and Peter. All of which we known were being used by Orthodox Christians in Oxyrhyncus along with the other gospels. While Judas was being used in the time of Irenaeus.

I’ll stop here because my blood is boiling…

P.s. Acharya S. and Bart D. Ehrman please go back to 1848 and visit your friends.

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